The 4 models of Public Relation

Friday, 1st of November

Today I read a really interesting slideshare that presents a theoretical model for Public Relation : the Grunig’s Four PR model

Explanations of this model

  • Press Agentry model:

–          Definition = to create new stories and events to attract media and to gain public notice. One-way communication means that there is a message from a source to a receiver with the express intention of persuading the recipient to action (Fraser Seitel 2003).

–          Factor of influence:  promotions, popularisations, change a bad reputation.

–          Who use it: personalities, sports people, personality campaign for election

  • Public information model:

 –          Definition: Not designed to necessarily persuade but rather to inform (Fraser Seitel, 2003). This model uses no research to guide their work

–          Factor of influence: time, cost of doing research, eagerness to promote a brand or a media

–          Who use it: government organizations  and businesses (ex: Nestlé)

  • Two-way symetrical model

–          Definition: is using research to develop messages that are most likely to persuade publics to behave in a particular way, as the organization wanrs (Grunig and White, 1992). It’s also called ‘scientific persuasion’

–          Factor of influence: efficiency, elitism, conservatism, central authority, tradition

–          Who use it : social causes, health campaigns and competitive businesses (Advertising)

  • Two- way symetrical model

–          Definition:  this model seeks understanding for mutual benefit for both organisations and public. Information is freely exchanged between both parties. It is largely regarded as the best of the 4 model. Evaluative research is used to determine the success of each campaign.

–          Factor of influence: stable image, open system, interdependence

–          Who use it: non profit organizations, integrated institutions


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